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  • Das Problem der strahlung in weltraum

    Paper ID



    • Karl Wiesse







    Radiation as well as matter has a dual nature, undulatory and corpuscular. For the radiation, typical conditions of cosmic space appear already in relatively low altitudes. Beyond the ionosphere, the entire spectrum of solar radiation is effective. It consists not only of the visible light but also of numerous other electromagnetic waves. Beyond the red spectrum follows infrared (heat) radiation and electric waves of various wave lengths. The violet light is followed by ultra-violet. X-rays and gamma radiation. The electromagnetic waves and their effects are described in detail. Beside the sun, also other celestial bodies in the spaces of the galaxy emit short waves (radio-frequency radiation) which are referred to in this paper. As to the corpuscular nature of solar radiation, the photo-effect is treated. Contrary to terrestrial1 conditions, this effect appears with special regularity due to the absence of gases and other chemical precesses in the presence of pure metallic surfaces. Not only lighter metals but also heavy ones show this effect, the latter suffering alterations of surface or electrical charge, if they are submitted to high frequency ultra-violet radiation and X-rays. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency (X-rays) hitting matter with only loosely bound electrons, may transfer a part of their energy to these electrons. In such a collison, the radiation is transformed into radiation of lower frequency and energy (Compton effect). Gamma radiation of high energy (sufficiently large gamma quanta) may cause a nuclear reaction by emmission of protons, neutrons or alpha-particles. Concluding, the existence of smallest particles (ions, electrons etc.) in interplanetary space is discussed. Here, magnetic fields of celestial bodies influence the paths of the charged particles. Acceleration or retardation of electrons result in electromagnetic wave radiation. If high energy protons collide with matter, nuclear transformations may occur. At the same time, a neutron radiation is caused. Besides cosmic rays, high energy gamma quanta and secondary neutrons possess the highest penetrating capacity. Effective screening of these kinds of radiation may therefore prove expecially important for protection against biological impairment.